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Moravian Instruments G2-3200 MARK II CCD Camera with KAF-3200ME CCD and 5-pos Filter Wheel

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Moravian Instruments G2-3200 MARK II Monochrome CCD Camera with Low Noise, High Quantum Efficiency Kodak KAF-3200ME CCD Sensor and 5-POSITION FILTER WHEEL
for SCIENTIFIC and Narrow-Band ASTROPHOTO Imaging

Designed and manufactured in Europe!

Sensor: Kodak KAF-3200ME Monochrome CCD
Resolution: 2184 x 1472 pixels
Quantum Efficiency:  87% max
Pixel Size: 6.8 x 6.8 µm
Interface:  USB 2.0 (USB 1.1 compatible)
Cooling: Two-stage Peltier up to -50°C
Available on back order. Usual delivery time: appr. 4 weeks

MARK II version of this great and very popular camera is now available!

Choose your colour! Now with a touch-of-colour!

Main features of the MARK II range:

  • faster download (up to about 2.5x the original)
  • built-in tilting mechanism
  • new, modern design with precise mechanical construction
  • top quality electronics

Shipping and Packaging
G2 CCD cameras are supplied in a foam-filled, hard carrying case containing:

  • Camera body with an optional telescope adapter. The standard 2" barrel adapter is included by default. If ordered, the filter wheel is already mounted inside the camera head and filters are threaded into place (if ordered).
  • A 100-240 V AC input, 12 V DC output “brick” adapter with 1.8 m long power cable.
  • 5 m long USB A-B cable for connecting camera to host PC.
  • A CD-ROM or USB Flash Drive with camera drivers, SIPS software package with electronic documentation and PDF version of User's Manual.
  • A printed copy of camera User's Manual

G2 CCD cameras are shipped in the foam-filled carrying case (left), larger case is used if camera is ordered with external filter wheel (right)

G2 Mark II Camera Models

The cooled G2 series Mark II CCD cameras were developed for imaging under extremely low-light conditions in astronomy, microscopy and similar areas. Design of this series inherits from earlier G2 Mark I cameras but brings some significant enhancements. G2 cameras employ precise electronics providing uniform frames and extremely low read noise limited only by CCD detector itself. Modular mechanical construction allows various camera variants to be combined with rich set of accessories, including telescope adapters, off-axis guider adapters, internal or external filter wheels, Ethernet adapters, guiding cameras etc.

Available models of G2 Mark II cameras:

Model CCD Chip ABG Color mask Resolution Pixel size Imaging area Preview download Low-Noise download
G2-0400 KAF-0402ME No None 768 × 512 9 × 9 μm 6.9 × 4.6 mm 0.19 s 0.25 s
G2-1600 KAF-1603ME No None 1536 × 1024 9 × 9 μm 13.8 × 9.2 mm 0.67 s 0.95 s
G2-3200 KAF-3200ME No None 2184 × 1472 6.8 × 6.8 μm 14.9 × 10 mm 1.39 s 1.95 s
G2-8300 KAF8300 Monochrome >1000× None 3358 × 2536 5.4 × 5.4 μm 18.1 × 13.7 mm 3.48 s 4.95 s
G2-8300C KAF8300 Color >1000× Bayer RGBG 3358 × 2536 5.4 × 5.4 μm 18.1 × 13.7 mm 3.48 s 4.95 s
G2-2000 KAI-2020 Monochrome >300× None 1604 × 1204 7.4 × 7.4 μm 11.9 × 8.9 mm 0.73 s 1.06 s
G2-2000C KAI-2020 Color >300× Bayer RGBG 1602 × 1202 7.4 × 7.4 μm 11.9 × 8.9 mm 0.73 s 1.06 s
G2-4000 KAI-4022 Monochrome >300× None 2056 × 2062 7.4 × 7.4 μm 15.2 × 15.3 mm 1.56 s 2.30 s
G2-4000C KAI-4022 Color >300× Bayer RGBG 2054 × 2060 7.4 × 7.4 μm 15.2 × 15.3 mm 1.56 s 2.30 s

G2 Mark II Camera General Features

All members of the G2 Mark II series share the same design, making them powerful research and imaging tools:

  • Top quality electronics:

    • Lowest possible read noise, limited by CCD detector itself.

    • Uniform frames without artifacts.

    • High dynamic range, 16-bits digitization.

    • Fast image download.

  • Precise mechanical construction:

    • Compact camera head, small and lightweight enough to be attached even to small telescopes.

    • Integrated all-in-one design with USB and power connectors directly on the camera head.

    • Integrated mechanical shutter not to bother with covering the telescope when taking dark frames.

    • Optional integrated filter wheel.

    • Telescope/lens adapters with adjustable tilt.

  • Efficient and regulated sensor cooling:

    • CCD cooling up to 50 °C below ambient temperature.

    • Air cooling of the Peltier hot side with high quality magnetic levitating fan.

    • Cooling regulation +/-0.1 °C

    • Single-voltage power supply enabling operation from 12V battery or “brick” adapter.

  • Wide set of optional accessories:

    • External filter wheels supporting various number of filter positions and filter sizes.

    • Off-Axis Guider adapter.

    • Various telescope/lens adapters (T-thread, M48, Canon/Nikon bayonets etc.)

    • Gigabit Ethernet adapter.

    • Telescope mount dovetail adapter.

  • Rich software support:

    • Drivers for 32bit and 64bit Windows

    • Drivers for 32bit and 64bit Linux

    • Drivers for macOS (only certain applications are supported on macOS)

    • Complete camera/observatory control and scientific image processing system SIPS free with camera

    • Drivers for 3rd party software packages, including universal ASCOM drivers

No matter if your target is reliable scientific data or beautiful images of deep-sky objects, G2 Mark II cameras are able to provide both.

Camera Electronics

16-bit A/D converter with correlated double sampling ensures high dynamic range and CCD chip-limited readout noise. Fast USB interface ensures image download time within seconds.

Maximum length of single USB cable is approx. 5 m. This length can be extended to 10 m or 15 m by using single USB hub or active USB extender cable. Up to 5 hubs or active extenders can be used in one connection.

Gx Camera Ethernet Adapter device allows connection of up to four Gx cameras of any type through Ethernet interface and TCP/IP network. Because TCP/IP protocol can be routed, the distance between camera and host PC can be virtually unlimited.

Camera electronics specifications:

ADC resolution 16 bits
Sampling method Correlated double sampling
Read modes Preview mode
  Low Noise mode
Horizontal binning 1 to 4 pixels
Vertical binning 1 to 4 pixels
Sub-frame readout Arbitrary sub-frame
Computer interface USB 2.0 High Speed
  USB 1.1 Full Speed compatible

Image download time depends on the CCD chip used in particular camera model. Also the read noise depends on the chip as well as on the read mode.

  • Preview read mode provides system read noise approx. 1 or 2 e- above CCD chip read noise.

  • Low Noise read mode is somewhat slower, but ensures system read noise roughly equal to the manufacturer-specified chip read noise.

Model G2-3200

G2-3200 model uses 3.2 MPx OnSemi KAF-3200ME NABG Full-Frame CCD chip.

KAF-3200ME CCD chip specifications:

Resolution 2184 (H) × 1472 (V) pixels
Pixel size 6.8 μm (H) × 6.8 μm (V)
Imaging area 14.9 mm (H) × 10 mm (V)
Full well capacity ~55,000 e-
Output node capacity ~110,000 e-
Anti-blooming gate No
Dark current 0.8 e-/s/pixel at 0 °C
Dark signal doubling 6 °C

KAF-3200ME CCD chip and its Quantum Efficiency:

G2-8300 electronics specifications:

Gain 0.4 e-/ADU (1 × 1 binning)
  0.8 e-/ADU (other binnings)
System read noise 8 e- RMS (Low Noise mode)
  9 e- RMS (Preview mode)
Full frame download 4.95 s (Low Noise mode)
  3.48 s (Preview mode)

Cooling and power supply

Regulated thermoelectric cooling is capable to cool the CCD chip up to 50 °C below ambient temperature. The Peltier hot side is cooled by fan. The CCD chip temperature is regulated with +/-0.1 °C precision. High temperature drop and precision regulation ensure very low dark current for long exposures and allow proper image calibration.

The camera head contains two temperature sensors — the first sensor measures directly the temperature of the CCD chip package. The second one measures the temperature inside the camera shell.

Back side of the G2 Mark II camera head contains vents for a fan, cooling Peltier hot side

Back side of the G2 Mark II camera head contains vents for a fan, cooling Peltier hot side

The cooling performance depends on the environmental conditions and also on the power supply. If the power supply voltage drops below 12 V, the maximum temperature drop is lower.

Chip cooling specifications:

CCD chip cooling Thermoelectric (Peltier modules)
Maximal cooling Δ T >50 °C below ambient
Regulated cooling Δ T 45 °C below ambient (85% cooling)
Regulation precision 0.1 °C
Hot side cooling Forced air cooling (fan)


  • Maximum temperature difference between CCD and ambient air may be reached when the cooling runs at 100% power. However, temperature cannot be regulated in such case, camera has no room for keeping the CCD temperature when the ambient temperature rises. Typical temperature drop can be achieved with cooling running at approx. 85% power, which provides enough room for regulation.

Power supply

The 12 V DC power supply enables camera operation from arbitrary power source including batteries, wall adapters etc. Universal 100-240 V AC/50-60 Hz, 60 W “brick” adapter is supplied with the camera. Although the camera power consumption does not exceed 40 W, the 60 W power supply ensures noise-free operation.

Power supply specification:

Camera power supply 12 V DC
Camera power consumption 15 W without cooling
  40 W maximum cooling
Power plug 5.5/2.5 mm, center +
Adapter input voltage 100-240 V AC/50-60 Hz
Adapter output voltage 12 V DC/5 A
Adapter maximum power 60 W


The power connector on the camera head uses center-plus pin. Although all modern power supplies use this configuration, always make sure the polarity is correct if other than the supplied power source is used.


  • Power consumption is measured on the input (AC side) of the supplied power adapter. Camera consumes less energy from 12 V power supply than state here.
  • The camera contains its own power supplies inside, so it can be powered by unregulated 12 V DC power source — the input voltage can be anywhere between 10 and 14 V. However, some parameters (like cooling efficiency) can degrade if the supply drops below 12 V.
  • G2 camera measures its input voltage and provides it to the control software. Input voltage is displayed in the Cooling tab of the Imaging Camera control tool in the SIPS program. This feature is important especially if you power the camera from batteries.

12 V DC/5 A power supply adapter for G2 camera:

12 V DC/5 A power supply adapter for G2 camera

Mechanical Specifications

Compact and robust camera head measures only 114 × 114 × 65 mm (approx. 4.5 × 4.5 × 2.6 inches). The head is CNC-machined from high-quality aluminum and black anodized. The head itself contains USB-B (device) connector and 12 V DC power plug. Integrated mechanical shutter allows streak-free image readout, as well as automatic dark frame exposures, which are necessary for unattended, robotic setups.

Camera head with integrated Internal filter wheel is 77.5 mm thick. Filter wheel offers 5 positions for standard 1.25-inch threaded filter cells. A variant of filter wheel with 6 positions for unmounted D26 mm filters is also available.

Mechanical specifications:

Internal mechanical shutter Yes, blade shutter
Shortest exposure time 0.1 s
Longest exposure time Limited by chip saturation only
Internal filter wheel 5 positions for 1.25" threaded filter cells or for D31 mm unmounted filters
  6 positions for 1" or D26.5 mm unmounted filters
Head dimensions 114 mm × 114 mm × 77.5 mm (with internal filter wheel)
  114 mm × 114 mm × 65 mm (without filter wheel)
Back focal distance 33.5 mm (base of adjustable adapters)
Camera head weight 1.00 kg (without filter wheel)
  1.15 kg (with internal filter wheel)
  1.70 kg (with “XS” external filter wheel)
  1.95 kg (with “S” external filter wheel)


  • Filter wheel with 6 positions can cause vignetting (shielding of the detector corners) if large CCD detector is used.
  • Back focus distance is measured from the sensor to the base on which adjustable adapters are mounted. Various adapters then provide back focal distance specific for the particular adapter type (e.g. M48 threaded adapter back focal distance is 55 mm).
  • Stated back focal distance already calculates with glass permanently placed in the optical path (e.g. optical window covering the CCD cold chamber).
  • When the adjustable adapter base, intended for camera with Internal filter wheel, is mounted on camera without filter wheel, the resulting back focal distance is only 21 mm.

Camera with Internal Filter Wheel

G2 Mark II camera head front view dimensions

G2 Mark II camera head front view dimensions



G2 Mark II camera head with Internal Filter Wheel side view dimensions

Camera with “XS” External Filter Wheel

G2 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel front view dimensions

G2 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel front view dimensions



G2 Mark II camera head with External filter wheel side view dimensions

The “S” sized External filter wheel diameter is greater (viz. External Filter Wheels), but the back focal distance of all external filter wheels is identical.

Camera without filter wheel

If the camera model, intended for usage with External filter wheel, is used without filter wheel at all, two types of adjustable adapter bases can be used.

When a “thin” adapter base, intended for camera with Internal filter wheel, is used, the back focal distance is only 21 mm.

Camera without filter wheel with thin adapter base

Camera without filter wheel with “thin” adapter base

“Thick” adapter base has the same thickness like the External filter wheel. This means all adapters, attached to this thick base, keep the same back focal distance like if attached directly to External filter wheel shell or to a camera with Internal filter wheel and “thin” adapter base.

Camera without filter wheel with thick adapter base

Camera without filter wheel with “thick” adapter base

Optional accessories

Various accessories are offered with G2 Mark II cameras to enhance functionality and help camera integration into imaging setups.

External filter wheels

When there is no filter wheel inside the camera head, all electronics and firmware, intended to control it, stays idle. These components can be utilized to control external filter wheel with only little changes. Also the camera front shell can be manufactured thinner, the space for filter wheel is superfluous.

G2 Camera Mark II with Internal filter wheel (left) and with attached External filter wheel (right)

G2 Camera Mark II with Internal filter wheel (left) and with attached External filter wheel (right)

Telescope adapters

Various telescope and lens adapters for the G2 Mark II cameras are offered. Users can choose any adapter according to their needs and other adapters can be ordered separately.

  • 2-inch barrel — adapter for standard 2" focusers.

  • T-thread short — M42 × 0.75 inner thread adapter.

  • T-thread with 55 mm BFD — M42 × 0.75 inner thread adapter, preserves 55 mm back focal distance.

  • M48 × 0.75 short — adapter with inner thread M48 × 0.75.

  • M48 × 0.75with 55 mm BFD — adapter with inner thread M48 × 0.75, preserves 55 mm back focal distance.

  • Canon EOS bayonet — standard Canon EOS lens adapter, preserves 44 mm back focal distance.

  • Nikon F bayonet — standard Nikon F lens adapter, preserves 46.5 mm back focal distance.

All telescope/lens adapters of the G2 Mark II series of cameras can be slightly tilted. This feature is introduced to compensate for possible misalignments in perpendicularity of the telescope optical axis and sensor plane.

The Mark II camera telescope adapters are attached using three “pulling” screws. As the adapter tilt is adjustable, another three “pushing” screws are intended to fix the adapter after some pulling screw is released to adjust the tilt.



Adjusting the telescope adapter tilt (left) and removing tiltable the adapter (right)

Adjustable telescope/lens adapters are attached slightly differently depending if the adapter is attached directly to the camera head (e.g. when camera is equipped with internal filter wheel) or to the External filter wheel case.

  • G2 Mark II adapters are not mounted directly on the camera head. Instead a tilting adapter base, holding the circular spring, is always used.

  • If the External filter wheel is used, the adapted base is not necessary, as the Mark II External filter wheel front plate is already designed to hold the spring and it also contains threads to fix respective adapters.

Mark II External filter wheels are already designed to for adjustable telescope adapters

Mark II External filter wheels are already designed to for adjustable telescope adapters

Off-Axis Guider Adapter (OAG)

G2 camera can be optionally equipped with Off-Axis Guider Adapter. This adapter contains flat mirror, tilted by 45° to the optical axis. This mirror reflects part of the incoming light into guider camera port. The mirror is located far enough from the optical axis not to block light coming to the main camera sensor, so the optics must be capable to create large enough field of view to illuminate the tilted mirror.

G2-OAG is manufactured in two variants, one with M42 × 0.75 thread (T-thread) and another with M48 × 0.75 thread. Both variants are designed to be compatible with external filter wheels and to preserve 55 mm distance from the sensor.



G2 OAG with M42 thread (left) and with M48 thread (right)

If the OAG has to be used on camera with internal filter wheel, the OAG is mounted to adapter base like any other adapter. Resulting Back focal distance remains the same.

OAG guider port is compatible with G0 and G1 cameras. It is necessary to replace the CS/1.25” adapter with short, 10 mm variant in the case of G1 cameras. Because G1 cameras follow CS-mount standard, (BFD 12.5 mm), any camera following this standard with 10 mm long 1.25” adapter should work properly with the G2-OAG.

G2-OAG sectional rendering illustrating reflecting mirror

G2-OAG sectional rendering illustrating reflecting mirror


Attaching camera head to telescope mount

G2 Mark II camera heads are equipped with “tripod” thread (0.25”) on the top side. This thread can be used to attach 1.75 inch “dovetail bar” (Vixen standard). It is then possible to attach the camera head, e.g. equipped with photographic lens, directly to various telescope mounts supporting this standard.

1.75" bar for standard telescope mounts

1.75" bar for standard telescope mounts

Tool-less desiccant containers

G2 Mark II cameras employ the same desiccant container like the larger G3 and G4 cameras. The whole container can be unscrewed, so it is possible to exchange silica-gel without the necessity to remove the camera from the telescope.

This design also allows usage of some optional parts:

  • Threaded hermetic cap, allowing sealing of the dried container when it is not immediately attached to the camera head.

  • Alternate (somewhat longer) desiccant container, modified to be able to be screw in and tightened (as well as released and screwed out) without any tool.



Comparison of the standard and tool-less container (left), optional cap, standard and tool-less variant of the container

Camera head color variants

Camera head is available in several color variants of the center plate. Visit manufacturer's web pages for current offering.

G2 Mark II camera color variants:

G2 Mark II camera color variants


Software Support

Powerful SIPS (Scientific Image Processing System) software, supplied with the camera, allows complete camera control (exposures, cooling, filter selection etc.). Also automatic sequences of images with different filters, different binning etc. are supported. With full ASCOM standard support, SIPS can be also used to control other observatory equipment. Specifically the telescope mounts, but also other devices (focusers, dome or roof controllers, GPS receivers etc.).

SIPS also supports automatic guiding, including image dithering. Both “autoguider” port hardware interface (6-wire cable) and mount “Pulse-Guide API” guiding methods are supported. For hi-quality mounts, capable to track without the necessity to guide at last during one exposure, inter-image guiding using the main camera only is available.

SIPS controlling whole observatory (shown in optional dark skin):

SIPS controlling whole observatory (shown in optional dark skin)

But SIPS is capable to do much more than just camera and observatory control. Many tools for image calibration, 16 and 32 bit FITS file handling, image set processing (e.g. median combine), image transformation, image export etc. are available.



SIPS handles FITS files, supports image calibration and processing

As the first “S” in the abbreviation SIPS means Scientific, the software supports astrometric image reduction as well as photometric processing of image series.



SIPS focuses to advanced astrometric and photometric image reduction, but also provides some very basic astro-photography processing

SIPS software package is freely available for download from this www site. All functions are thoroughly described in the SIPS User's Manual, installed with every copy of the software.

Drivers for ASCOM standard as well as native drivers for third-party software are also available (e.g. TheSkyX, MaxIm DL, AstroArt, etc.). Visit the download page of this web site for current list of available drivers, please.

INDI drivers for 32 bit and 64 bit Linux running on x86 and ARM are also available. Drivers for TheSkyX package running on macOS are supplied with the camera.

Automatic guiding

SIPS software package allows automatic guiding of the astronomical telescope mounts using separate guiding camera. Proper and reliable automatic guiding utilizing the computational power of Personal Computer (e.g. calculation of star centroid allows guiding with sub-pixel precision) is not simple task. Guiding complexity corresponds to number of parameters, which must be entered (or automatically measured).

The SIPS “Guider” tool window:

The SIPS Guider tool window

The “Guiding” tool allows switching of autoguiding on and off, starting of the automatic calibration procedure and recalculation of autoguiding parameters when the telescope changes declination without the necessity of new calibration. Also swapping of the German Equatorial mount no longer requires new autoguider calibration. There is also a graph showing time history of guide star offsets from reference position in both axes. The length of graph history as well as the graph range can be freely defined, so the graph can be adjusted according to particular mount errors and periodic error period length. Complete log of calibration procedure, detected offsets, correction pulses etc. is also shown in this tool. The log can by anytime saved to log file.

An alternative to classic autoguiding is the inter-image guiding, designed for modern mounts, which are precise enough to keep tracking with sub-pixel precision through the single exposure, and irregularities only appear on the multiple-exposure time-span. Inter-image guiding then performs slight mount position fixes between individual exposures of the main camera, which eliminates “traveling” of the observed objects through the detector area during observing session. This guiding method uses main imaging camera, it does not use another guiding camera and naturally does not need neither OAG nor separate guiding telescope to feed the light into it.

Inter-image guiding controls in the Guiding tab of the Imager Camera tool window:

Inter-image guiding controls in the Guiding tab of the Imager Camera tool window

Complete log of calibration procedure, detected offsets, correction pulses etc. is also shown in this tab. The log can by anytime saved to log file.

G2 cooled imaging camera with G0 high-performance guider AnchorAdvanced reconstruction of color information of single-shot-color cameras

Image Gallery

Example images captured with G2 KAI cameras.

Above: Object SH2 155
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000 (H-alpha + OIII + RGB)
Telescope BRC 250 F5

Above: Object NGC2903
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Above: Object Virgo Galaxy Cluster
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Above: Object NGC7380
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Above: Object IC1805
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Above: Object NGC884 a NGC869
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

Above: Object Gama Cygni
Author Marco Burali
Camera G2-4000
Telescope Takahashi TOA 150 F7

All images published with permission of their respective authors.

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